Senin, 26 Maret 2018

Grown-ups Stop Growing New Neurons in This Part of the Brain

At the point when our current investigation met critical incredulity, we weren't shocked. All things considered, we ourselves stayed suspicious of what we were seeing all through our examination. In any case, rehashed and differed tests persuaded us our decisions were right: New cerebrum cells don't develop (or are amazingly uncommon) in the grown-up human hippocampus, a district critical for learning and memory. The introduction of new neurons in human memory circuits, as it were, decreases amid youth to imperceptible levels in the grown-up. 

Our exploration discoveries started sound civil argument in light of the fact that for around 20 years, mind researchers have felt that neurons keep on being conceived in the grown-up human hippocampus. The topic of whether and how new neurons are conceived in grown-ups is imperative for seeing how our brains adjust to changing life conditions and how we may have the capacity to repair mind damage 

Science progresses with the gathering of more confirmation that refines and reconsider hypotheses. As neuroscientists, we too are changing our thoughts of how grown-up human learning must function in light of our current examination. 

Grown-up neurogenesis: Animal models to people 

One of us, Arturo, has been examining how new neurons are conceived and incorporated into cerebrum circuits since the 1980s. He was an individual from Fernando Nottebohm's lab at Rockefeller University, which was at the time delivering a momentous arrangement of papers demonstrating that the brains of larks create new neurons each season as they prepare to learn new tunes. Prior research from the 1960s had discovered proof that rat brains deliver new neurons amid adulthood, however this thought remained very disputable until the point when Nottebohm's lark thinks about persuaded most neuroscientists that grown-up brains could make new neurons. 

From that point forward, a few investigations have discovered indications of new neurons in the grown-up human hippocampus, driving numerous scientists to acknowledge that this piece of the cerebrum could reestablish itself all through life in individuals as well. The thought invigorated enthusiasm for making sense of how to expand this regenerative limit and maybe fight off age-related decreases in mind work. 

Truth be told, we started our own particular scan for infant neurons in the grown-up human hippocampus on the grounds that past human examinations had evaluated 700 new cells are conceived in the grown-up hippocampus every day. We needed to balance this with another locale of the mind where we had as of late detailed finding far less new neurons than seen in different creatures. 

Gathering confirmation to demonstrate a negative 

The primary sign that something else may happen came when Arturo went by the lab of our associate Zhengang Yang at Fudan University in China to think about a few all around safeguarded human mind examples. They were not ready to distinguish any new neurons in the grown-up hippocampus by any means. 

At the point when Arturo came back from China to our lab and imparted to Mercedes and Shawn the perception that new neurons were absent from the grown-up human hippocampus, we were looked with a test: How would you demonstrate a negative? How might we make certain that we weren't simply missing the new neurons that different examinations had seen? 

As a few pundits have called attention to, distinguishing new neurons in human cerebrum tissue is convoluted. Normally, analysts search for the nearness of specific proteins that we know are delivered by youthful neurons. Yet, we were taking a gander at gave cerebrum tests from dead individuals; possibly these "identifier" proteins corrupt after death. They may likewise have different parts and be created by different sorts of cells. 

So we expected to utilize various ways to deal with search for new neurons. To begin with we inspected a few unique proteins that are available in youthful neurons. We next concentrated the cells intimately with high-determination light and electron magnifying instruments. We needed to make sure that any cell we would report would have the unmistakable appearance of youthful neurons; they have a tendency to have a more straightforward shape that separates them from develop neurons, which are generally greater with long, expand branches. We likewise took a gander at general examples of quality articulation in this area and watched a comparative decrease in qualities related with youthful neurons. Also, we searched for confirmation of the undifferentiated cells that make youthful neurons, which have their own protein markers and can be distinguished when they partition. 

None of the grown-up hippocampal tissue we analyzed with these systems demonstrated proof of youthful neurons or their isolating foundational microorganism guardians. 

To ensure that our systems were even equipped for identifying youthful neurons or separating neural foundational microorganisms, we took a gander at a similar district of the hippocampus before birth, when we knew they ought to be available. In these fetal mind tests, we plainly observed copious new neurons. Utilizing similar procedures, we at that point searched for these cells in cerebrum tissue from individuals who passed on in early stages, youth or early immaturity. We saw the quantity of new neurons pointedly declined until the point when few stayed by the age of 13; by 18 and 19 years, we couldn't discover any. In the event that neurogenesis proceeds in the grown-up human hippocampus, it is an exceptionally uncommon marvel. 

Could our failure to see these cells be because of obscure contrasts amongst youthful and old cerebrum tissue? We realized that there are exceptionally uncommon youthful neurons in different parts of the grown-up human cerebrum, so we looked in those areas. When we promptly found those uncommon youthful neurons, we turned out to be more certain that what we were seeing, or not seeing, in the hippocampus was not just an ancient rarity of maturing cerebrum tissue. 

Could something about the patients' history preceding passing, or the way the examples had been gathered have clouded proof of new neurons that had been available when the brains had been alive? To persuade ourselves that the tissue was as illustrative of grown-up brains as could be allowed, we examined brains gathered by various associates the world over and saw similar outcomes. 

Could the time amongst death and safeguarding of the brains prompt our failure to distinguish youthful neurons? To test this, we gathered in excess of twelve tissue tests from patients who were having mind tissue evacuated as a major aspect of surgical treatment for extreme epilepsy. These are tests we gathered and protected rapidly to boost their quality. What's more, we took a gander at two examples where the brains had been gathered and protected very quickly at the season of death and saw similar outcomes. 

In all out we analyzed 59 brains, an accumulation tantamount to past investigations. In every one of these cases, we saw similar outcomes: no indications of new neurons in the grown-up hippocampus. We presumed that if new neurons are being conceived in the grown-up human hippocampus, they are to a great degree uncommon. 

So what have different specialists seen that influenced them to trust that new neurons are conceived in the grown-up human hippocampus? Past examinations habitually utilized just a solitary protein to distinguish new neurons. Tragically, we found that the most widely recognized protein used to do this, one called doublecortin, can likewise be seen in non-neuronal mind cells (called glia) that are known to recover all through life. 

One other research assemble attempted an alternate system all the more regularly utilized by archeologists and geologists: carbon-14 dating. This is an exceptionally innovative approach to decide the period of cells, particularly in a field where we require better approaches to contemplate the human cerebrum. Nonetheless, it's not clear how correctly this technique can recognize neurons or if there are different reasons the radioactive carbon levels may change past the cell division that would prompt new neurons. 

Left with bounty more to explore 

Our examination left us with the waiting inquiry – for what reason does this decrease in neurogenesis happen? For what reason does the hippocampus keep on creating new neurons into adulthood in different creatures, yet not in the human? 

To wrap our heads around this inquiry, we inspected the hippocampus of macaque monkeys, which are known to keep delivering new neurons into adulthood. Utilizing marking strategies that are not ordinarily conceivable in people for moral reasons, we followed the age of new neurons in living creatures. We found that the neural immature microorganisms that create new neurons combine into a lace like layer in the monkey hippocampus before birth. This layer was available and contained partitioning cells even in adolescent monkeys. When we glanced back at our information from the infant human hippocampus we saw that the foundational microorganisms did not compose themselves in this mold – an unmistakable formative contrast between human brains and those of different primates. 

Our examination just relates to the hippocampus; numerous other mind locales in the human cerebrum – which is huge – have not been researched and stay to be investigated for the conceivable nearness of new neurons. The advancement of better techniques to specifically contemplate the human cerebrum will enable analysts to see more about how versatility happens in the human hippocampus. What's more, future research can work to decide whether there are approaches to reignite the introduction of new neurons in this locale. 

Be that as it may, what does our discovering mean? Would it be a good idea for us to mourn the absence of new neurons in the grown-up human hippocampus? We think not. 

To start with, the way toward making another neuron is interesting and is as of now showing us numerous new things. Grown-up neurogenesis should keep on being a zone of concentrate in flying creatures, mice, rats and different species where it happens. One day this work may show us how to instigate it in the human mind. 

Second, our brains work for a considerable length of time – any longer than the mouse mind, in spite of the rat's copious new neurons. To be sure, the long existences of people might be connected to the decrease in hippocampal neurogenesis; we may come up short on ancestors in youth. 

Our work additionally brings up new issues – plainly a rich and sound way of life improves our mind capacity and keep down the decrease of age, even without new neurons. Building up a more profound comprehension of human mental health may yet give new medications and treatments to cerebrum diseas.

Shawn Sorrells, Post-doc in Neurological Surgery, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco; Arturo Alvarez-Buylla, Professor of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, and Mercedes Paredes, Assistant Professor of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 

This article was initially distributed on The Conversation. Read the first article. Take after the majority of the Expert Voices issues and civil arguments — and turn out to be a piece of the dialog — on Facebook, Twitter and Google +. The perspectives communicated are those of the creator and don't really mirror the perspectives of the distributer. This variant of the article was initially distributed on Live Science.